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  • Learn More About Radiant Heat Transfer in QMax's Latest Video

    QMax's latest video illustrates how radiation heat transfer works and how it applies to steam tracing. If you have questionson radiant heat or steam tracing, contact the team at Campbell-Sevey. 

  • Campbell-Sevey Adds New Product Line: Webster Combustion Burners

    It isn't very often that we, at Campbell-Sevey, add a new product line. For us, it has to be products that offer significant benefits to our customers, backed by a company with a proven track record of service. That's why we are excited to announce the addition of Webster Combustion to our line of superior products. 

    Webster Combustion boiler burners combine proprietary control technology with proven combustion performance to deliver three key benefits we always strive for with our customers:

    • Fuel economy
    • Energy savings
    • Process efficiency

    Their burners combine advanced control technology with proven combustion performance to improve boiler efficiency, reduce energy costs and emissions, plus they have the best lead times in the industry. 

    Webster Combustion offers forced draft burners, including high efficiency and low NOx burner configurations, for a wide range of low and high pressure steam applications in both commercial and industrial markets. 

    Features like High Turndown and Temp-A-Trim significantly reduce energy costs and emissions by improving process control and burner efficiency. Their Alternative Fuel burners can be engineered to reduce waste by burning process fuels for steam and hot water.

    Whether you need a burner for a new installation or to retrofit an existing one, contact the team at Campbell-Sevey. We'll find the perfect burner for your application.  

  • Test Your Knowledge: Flash Steam

    The quantity of flash steam available depends upon ________?

    1.      Condensate temperature/pressure and flash steam pressure
    2.      Pressure of steam generated in the boiler
    3.      Steam enthalpy at atmospheric pressure
    4.      Total heat of flash steam

    And the answer is...

    1.      Condensate temperature/pressure and flash steam pressure

    ‘Flash steam’ is released from hot condensate when its pressure is reduced. Even water at an ambient room temperature of 68°F would boil if its pressure were lowered far enough. It may be worth noting that water at 338°F will boil at any pressure below 100 psig. The steam released by the flashing process is as useful as steam released from a steam boiler.


    As an example, when steam is taken from a boiler and the boiler pressure drops, some of the water content of the boiler will flash off to supplement the ‘live’ steam produced by the heat from the boiler fuel. Because both types of steam are produced in the boiler, it is impossible to differentiate between them. Only when flashing takes place at relatively low pressure, such as at the discharge side of steam traps, is the term flash steam widely used. Unfortunately, this usage has led to the erroneous conclusion that flash steam is in some way less valuable than so-called live steam.

    In any steam system seeking to maximise efficiency, flash steam will be separated from the condensate, and used to supplement any low pressure heating application. Every pound of flash steam used in this way is a pound of steam that does not need to be supplied by the boiler. It is also a pound of steam not vented to atmosphere, from where it would otherwise be lost.

    The reasons for the recovery of flash steam are just as compelling, both economically and environmentally, as the reasons for recovering condensate.

    How much flash steam is available?

    If use is to be made of flash steam, it is helpful to know how much of it will be available. The quantity is readily determined by calculation, or can be read from simple tables or charts like the one below.

    Answer details exurpted from For more in-depth description read the full article.

  • How Not to do Steam/Condensate Piping

    Over the years, we've encountered a lot of "unique" piping configurations, however in a recent plant audit we found one that even surprised us. 

    The image below is a perfect example of how to INCORRECTLY pipe the condensate side of a steam coil.  

    Here is a list of the problems regarding how the piping for the steam coil was installed:

    1.  There is no vertical drop in the piping between the coil and steam trap
    2.  The air vent is piped with the opposite flow direction
    3.  The vacuum breaker installation direction leaves the atmospheric side of the vacuum breaker susceptible to dirt
    4.  The condensate piping is thin-wall copper, with no mechanical joints (threaded or flanged joints)

    Did you see any more?  Leave us a comment below.

    Any one of these issues would diminish the steam coils performance and/or service life. The combination of all of these resulted in a dramatic difference. 

    It's rare for us to get such a good photo of bad piping like this since the mechanical rooms are usually dark and our contractors usually pipe steam applications properly.  

    If you ever need assistance to assure that installation of your steam equipment is done properly, Campbell-Sevey can usually provide a sketch with details if requested. 

  • A Simple Guide to Coil Circuiting

    Circuiting of fluid coils is important to the performance and life of the coil, yet for even seasoned professionals it can be confusing. However, it really isn't as difficult as it seems. 

    What is circuiting?

    In the simplest terms, circuiting means the number of tubes on any coil being fed by each header. Every coil has a specific number of rows, and a specific number of tubes within each row. For example, in the illustration below we show a coil that is 8 tubes high and 4 rows deep for a total of 32 tubes (in another case, you could have a coil that is 24 tubes high and 8 rows deep for a total of 192 tubes). In this initial example, the "supply" enters from the right and the "return" exits on the left. (Note: Most fluid coils have the supply and return connections on the same end of the coil.)

    Hot or cold fluid enters through the supply connection, fills up the manifold, and then simultaneously feeds the tubes in each circuit. The number of tubes that are fed by each header (or number of circuits) ultimately depends on the performance you need from that coil. Circuiting is really a balancing act of tube velocity and pressure drop.  

    Determining the right number of circuits

    To ensure proper heat transfer, fluid must travel through coils at the right speed. Some coils only have a small number of circuits while others have quite a few. If fluid travels too quickly through the coil, the heat transfer will be inefficient, the coil could have a high pressure drop, and this situation could cause tube erosion. If it travels too slowly, only a little heat transfer will occur. By selecting the appropriate number of circuits, you control the fluid speed and thus the heat transfer efficiency of the coil.

    Fewer circuits serves to speed up the fluid in the coil, while more circuits slow it down. For example, feeding a larger number of tubes simultaneously spreads the flow of fluid to multiple circuits, which slows down the speed at which it flows through the coil. The number of circuits and the inside diameter of the tubes allows you to calculate total flow rate (in GPM) of the coil.

    If a coil has 8 tubes per row and is 4 rows deep, as shown in our example, then the circuiting is as follows:

    • Half Circuit – 4 feeds 
    • Quarter Circuit – 2 feeds
    • Full Circuit – 8 feeds 
    • Double Circuit – 16 feeds 

    Finally, here are 3 rules of thumb to follow regarding coil circuiting:

    1. The number of tubes you feed must divide evenly into the number of tubes in the coil or you will have dropped tubes (tubes that aren't fed fluid).  
    2. The coil must have an even number of passes if you want connections to end up on the same end of the coil. With an odd number of passes, you will have fluid connections on opposite ends.
    3. The number of  circuits will determine the resulting pressure drop by determining the number of circuits and thus the fluid velocity and effective tube length for each circuit (acceptable fluid tube velocity is between 2 and 7 feet per second). 

    Contact Campbell-Sevey

    If you want to ensure that the most efficient number of circuits are being used for your replacement coils, simply contact the team at Campbell-Sevey. 


  • Coping With Vacuum – The Importance of Ejector Systems in Urea Plants

    The following article was recently published by Jim Lines and appeared in the June 2017 issue of World Fertilizer magazine. 

    Ejector systems are critical to the final concentration of a urea solution. Regardless of the end product, whether produced by granulation or prilling, ejector systems establish evaporator pressures that permit the removal of water to concentrate the urea solution at temperatures sufficiently low enough to minimize biuret formaton. 

    There are several process technologies for urea production. Saipem/Snamprogetti, Maire Tecnimont/Stamicarbon, Toyo Engineering Corp., Casale and NIIK offer the most frequently used. For each process technology, the ejector systems are critical to plant throughput and product quality. While critical to the success and profitability of a urea plant, ejector systems are viewed as not generally well understood. The thermodynamics of ejector performance in not widely known and the vacuum condensers within an ejector system cannot be designed with conventional heat exchanger software. 

    This article provides a deeper review of ejectors and vacuum condensers in urea concentration processes so that specifiers, evaluators, purchasers and users of this critical process equipment understand the salient considerations necessary to provide reliable plant performance. Download the complete article that covers:

    • Ejector systems for urea concentration processes
    • Steam supply conditions
    • Ejector performance curve
    • Variables that affect ejector performance
    • Booster ejector flushing
    • Vacuum condensers
    • Ammonia emission from ejector system
    • Numerous charts and equations

    Click to download the complete article "Coping With Vacuum" by Jim Lines, Graham Corp. 

  • CS Insight: Shooting for the Stars

    Campbell-Sevey was proud to be a sponsor at the Horwitz "Shooting for the Stars" event. The charity trap shooting fund-raiser raised $30,000.00 for the Minnesota Veterans Home in Minneapolis which provides quality health care to "serve those who have served".

    For the team from Campbell-Sevey, the event was a blast. Steve Graves, Tony Graves, Tyler Rechtzigel and Bob Lawrence (pictured above) gathered with the crowds and then headed into the field for some fun rounds of shooting. Afterward everyone gathered for a bite to eat and more fun. A great time for a great cause.

    Everyone "locked and loaded" and ready to go.

    Tyler with his allocation of shells.

    Check out this video of Bob Lawrence taking his shot at the clay pigeons.

    All smiles on the range.

    John Arvig joined the group for the dinner afterward. 

  • Steam Tip 13: Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy

    When the pressure of saturated condensate is reduced, a portion of the liquid “flashes” to low-pressure steam. Depending on the pressures involved, the flash steam contains approximately 10% to 40% of the energy content of the original condensate. In most cases, including condensate receivers and deaerators, the flashing steam is vented and its energy content lost. However, a heat exchanger can be placed in the vent to recover this energy. 

    The following table indicates the energy content of flash steam at atmospheric pressure. 


    Consider a vent pipe with the following conditions: 

    • Velocity of flash steam: 300 feet per minute 
    • Diameter of vent pipe: 4 inches 
    • Hours of operation: 8,000 hours per year (hr/yr) 
    • Boiler efficiency: 80% 
    • Cost of fuel: $8.00 per million Btu ($8.00/MMBtu) 

    A vent condenser could condense the flashed steam, transfer its thermal energy to incoming makeup water, and then return it to the boiler. Energy is recovered in two forms: hotter makeup water and clean, distilled condensate ready for productive use in your operation. 

    Referring to the table above, the potential energy recovered from the flashed steam is 555 MMBtu, based on 8,760 hours of annual operation. Correct this value for actual operating hours and boiler efficiency: 

    • Annual Energy Recovered = 555 MMBtu/yr x (8,000 hr/yr / 8,760 hr/yr) = 507 MMBtu
    • Annual Fuel Cost Savings = (507 MMBtu/yr x $8.00/MMBtu) / 0.80 = $5,070**

    **Note that the annual fuel savings are per vent. Often, there are several such vents in a steam facility, and the total savings can be a significantly larger number. The additional heat exchanger cost still needs to be considered, but available literature shows a quick payback for the measure. 

    Distilled Water Recovery 

    A useful rule of thumb is that every 500 lb/hr of recovered flash steam provides 1 gallon per minute of distilled water. 

    Materials Considerations 

    Depending on the specific application, the vent condenser materials can be either all stainless or mild steel shell with copper tubes. For deaerator vent condensing, a stainless steel heat exchanger is recommended to avoid corrosion due to the high concentrations of gasses. Mild steel can be used for receiver tank vent condensing. 

    This tip is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and originally published by the Industrial Energy Extension Service of Georgia Tech. For suggested actions and resources, click to download the complete US Department of Energy Tip Sheet. 

  • Keep an Eye on Your Steam Traps - Automatically

    Although steam traps fail every day, a comprehensive steam trap management program at most facilities doesn't exist. Even the best programs only inspect them once a year or every other year, resulting in high rates of lost energy. At Campbell-Sevey, we recommend a proactive approach to monitoring steam traps using Armstrong’s SteamEye®. With SteamEye you know instantly when a steam trap fails, allowing you to immediately correct it.

    SteamEye keeps an eye on your steam traps 24 hours a day, every day, allowing you to reduce labor and energy costs by detecting leaks automatically.

    How SteamEye Works

    SteamEye uses a radio frequency (RF) wireless transmitter mounted at each steam trap to detect their operating state. That operating state is then transmitted wirelessly to a central receiver that can then alert system operators of trap failure.

    SteamEye technology is on 24/7 — constantly reporting the status of your steam traps for optimum energy system management and savings. It can be installed on high pressure traps in service without shutting off the steam, and its remote, wireless operation addresses the labor costs and safety issues associated with manual monitoring.

    Range of the RF Signal

    In outdoor installations where the transmitter is within the line of sight of the receiver, the typical range is 1,200 feet. In facilities where the signal must travel through walls or floors, the range varies. Typically, the signal range is approximately 300 feet. If the receiver is out of the range of a transmitter, repeaters can be placed between the transmitter and receiver to “repeat” the signal from transmitter to receiver.

    Eliminate Steam Trap Monitoring Problems

    Armstrong's SteamEye, together with their Sage energy management application, help eliminate traditional trap monitoring and management problems and dramatically improve your system efficiency. 

    Contact Campbell-Sevey for a Steam Trap Survey and to learn more about Steam Trap Monitoring Programs.

  • Improve Heat Exchanger Efficiency with Mixers and Turbulators

    In many conventionally designed heat exchangers, efficiency is limited due to a small temperature difference at the heat exchange surface. For instance, in a shell and tube exchanger, liquid usually flows through the tube. The outer layer of liquid has greater exposure to the walls of the tubing, therefore it experiences higher heat transfer than liquid in the core and can form a barrier, sharply inhibiting thermal exchange. This can happen for a variety of reasons, but low velocity is the most common one.

    To maximize efficiency in these applications, one option Campbell-Sevey can recommend is the use of static mixers or turbulators within heat exchangers.

    Static Mixers

    A static mixer consists of a rod with mixer elements, such as half-circle discs, to agitate the fluid. The flow of liquid is directed radially toward the pipe walls and back to the element, regardless of velocity. As a result, fluids are completely mixed to eliminate differences in temperature and improve thermal transfer.

    One notable element to consider when adding static mixers is that pressure drop will be higher. The team at Campbell-Sevey can help you determine how that may affect your system based on your process.

    Twisted Tape Turbulators

    Twisted tape turbulators are a cost effective way to enhance the heat transfer in the tubes for some of these applications as well. Unlike a static mixer, twisted tape turbulators are thin, flat metal sheets in a helical shape. They are inserted into the tubes and break up the laminar flow of fluids, enhancing heat transfer efficiency.

    The larger the temperature difference is at the heat exchange surface, the more efficient the heat exchanger is, and the smaller the heat exchanger can be, reducing capital cost. Additionally, whether you use static mixers or twisted tape turbulators, both can help extend equipment life by eliminating hot and cool spots that can cause thermal stress.

    For more information on improving your system and heat exchanger efficiency, contact the team at Campbell-Sevey.

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Products We Carry

  • Hot Water Boilers
  • Watertube Steam Boilers
  • Firetube Steam Boilers
  • Deaerators
  • Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG’s)
  • Automatic Recirculation Valves
  • Economizers
  • Gas-Fired Water Heaters
  • Gas-Fired Humidifiers
  • Boiler/Generator Flue Stacks
  • Continuous Emissions Monitors (CEMS)
  • Pressure Reducing Valves
  • Safety and Relief Valves
  • Control Valves
  • Pressure Independent Control Valves
  • Expansion Joints, Guides, Anchors
  • Flash Tanks
  • Flow Meters
  • Balancing Valves
  • Check Valves
  • Separators
  • Pumps
  • Pressure Booster Systems
  • Piston Valves
  • Heating/Cooling Coils
  • Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers
  • Shell and Tube Exchangers
  • Water Heaters
  • Steam Humidifiers
  • Vacuum Systems
  • Condensers
  • Steam Traps
  • Wireless Steam Trap Monitors
  • Tube Bundles
  • Direct Gas-Fired Space Heaters
  • Direct Gas-Fired Make-Up Air Units
  • Unit Heaters
  • Strainers
  • Air Vents
  • Liquid Drainers
  • Heat Transfer Packages
  • Digital Water Mixing Valves
  • Air Cooled Condensers/Dry Coolers
  • Steam Filters
  • Electric Condensate Pumps
  • Steam/Air-Powered Condensate Pumps
  • Packaged Condensate Pump Skids